April 18, 2023
October 26, 2023

Reading Between the “Likes”: Teens and Social Media

Counslr counselor Meredith Howard, LCAT, LMSW explores social media, teenagers, and how to navigate the daunting waters of parenting without drowning in our online world today.

by
Meredith Howard, LCAT, LMSW
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Headlines today that address teenagers and social media would have any reasonable parent pulling the laptop plug and destroying their children’s smartphones forever (or at least until the legal age of 18). Scroll online and you will find a plethora of scientific studies and news articles that attribute social media—and the smartphones that enable it—as the root cause of growing mental health issues such as anxiety and depression in children and teens today. The Financial Times ran this headline recently: “Smartphones and Social Media are Destroying Children’s Mental Health,” and a Washington Post column stated that “Social Media is Devastating Teens’ Mental Health.”

There’s no doubt about it: there is certainly a cause-and-effect relationship between social media, smartphones, and teens’ behavior, and there are other opinions that question the “catastrophic” evidence presented to date. In addition to the well-known negative effects, there are also wonderful positive benefits of social media and smartphones for people of all ages.

In this piece, Meredith Howard, a creative arts therapist, teen expert, and online mental health counselor for Counslr explores social media, teenagers, and how to navigate the daunting waters of parenting without drowning in our online world today.

The Relationship Between Teens and Social Media

We all want and need to feel a sense of belonging. This is especially true during the adolescent years, when teens are forming their self-identity, developing close peer relationships and establishing greater independence. For teens, social media plays a major role in their ability to make connections and broaden their social networks.

This leads to the question, “How can teens create a positive social support system, grow, and develop in the ever-changing, instantaneous environment of social media?”

As with all relationships, it’s complicated. The complexity of the relationship between social media and teens is what makes it difficult to create clear expectations and guidelines. In 2021, the US Surgeon General called for social media companies to prioritize adolescent health and wellbeing at “all stages of product development.” But scientific evidence on the impact of social media on adolescent mental health is inconsistent,1 suggesting that there are both positive and negative aspects of social media when it comes to teens, their mental health, and their developmental growth. Recent national statistics suggest that 95% of adolescents have access to a smartphone and 88% have access to a desktop or laptop at home. In 2018, 45% of adolescents reported that they were online “almost constantly,” up from 24% only three years prior.2 Clearly there is a rapid increase in both the use of and accessibility of social media, starting in adolescence.

Teens and Their Social World: The Developmental and Emotional Impact of Social Media on Teens

Although 90% of brain growth takes place before kindergarten, adolescence is the second largest period of brain growth, so it is important to understand what social media is and the role it can play during those critical years. But what exactly is social media? The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines it as forms of electronic communication through which users create online communities to share information, ideas, personal messages, and other content.3

During adolescence, social interactions, peer relationships, and forming self-identity are at the forefront of development. Social interactions, especially with peers, play a major role in how adolescents begin to form their identity. Interacting with their peers helps them focus on this developmental task—on how they see themselves and fit what their peers think of them.4

Since teens experience this developmental period of increased socialization because of the rapid development of their socio-affective part of their brain, they are easily drawn to social media as a way to get immediate social rewards and peer evaluation.2 It provides an easily accessible and vast social network, producing instantaneous feedback from peers. Teens have a heightened sense of awareness and sensitivity to peer interactions during this stage, which dramatically affects their moods when they are rejected or excluded.4 If negative interactions happen online, especially through social media platforms, it can make a bad situation feel worse.

Developing healthy, positive social interactions in adolescence depends on interpreting social cues, such as facial expressions, tone of voice, and body language in addition to actual words. But the social media environment can be asynchronous and does not always provide social cues for teens, making it more difficult to read and understand the intent of a comment or picture. This way of experiencing social interactions can also impact the way the brain grows and develops.4 Although social media users try to add emojis to express intent and emotion, they do not take the place of actual, in-person social messaging.

The Upside: How Social Media Connects Us

Social Connections

Social media has created a vast social network, one that gives us the opportunity to make social connections far beyond our geographic location. Teens are no exception when it comes to wanting to expand their social world. In a recent study, 81% of teens reported that social media allows them to feel more connected, and 69% reported it to be at least somewhat important for having meaningful conversations with close friends. In addition, teens reported that connecting with friends and family is the primary positive part of social media.2

Giving and Receiving Support

Social media also has the unique capacity to connect people who have similar interests and support those who are in need, regardless of where they live. Being able to connect with individuals who share similar struggles can be empowering and make individuals feel like they are not alone. Giving and receiving support can have a very positive effect on mental health and emotional wellbeing, especially for those who are isolated, geographically or in other ways.2

Self-Expression and Identity Formation

Despite all the criticism we hear and read, social media can contribute to an adolescent’s sense of wellbeing by advancing their self-expression and identity formation.5 It provides a channel through which teens can connect with communities of similar peers or social groups with similar interests and beliefs.6 In addition, teens have a means for self-expression and can explore various forms of entertainment by finding listings of local events and activities, including art, history, music, dance, and cooking, to name a few. They may also find educational and cultural resources and interact with people of different backgrounds, cultures, and beliefs, breaking down geographic and other barriers.6

But Beware: The Negative Side of Social Media

The downsides and dangers of social media cannot be overlooked or ignored. Some major consequences are the inevitable social comparisons, exposure to online bullying, peer influence, and social exclusion. These experiences can have a major effect on a teens’ mental and physical wellbeing and developmental growth during these formative adolescent years, with long-lasting effects.

Social Comparison

A large part of forming one’s identity as a teen is looking to peers and social circles for approval. Since teens use social media for many of these interactions, it is natural to look to social media as a point of comparison and a way to get that approval. By its very nature, social media is designed to get instant and sometimes negative feedback from peers. The number of “likes,” followers, and friends is often equated with social acceptance and self-worth. Measuring and rating social media content in this way can dramatically affect teens’ self-identity. Over the long term, this not only has the potential to impact self-esteem and self-worth but can also lead to symptoms of anxiety and depression. Furthermore, teens’ feeds can become flooded with imagery that can make their own lives seem much less exciting or interesting by that same type of comparison. Some studies have shown that a higher level of online social comparison is associated with depressive symptoms in youth. Not surprisingly, body-image concerns may increase.2

Cyberbullying

Cyberbullying is one of the most negative aspects of social media and can be a serious detriment to one’s wellbeing. This is especially true at a vulnerable stage of life, like adolescence, when peer relationships and the desire for more independence take centerstage. Not only does social media allow access to an audience much larger than a school or community, but there’s a lack of control over the content once that content is posted, further extending its audience “reach.” Teens are especially susceptible due to their impulsive nature, their naturally premature decision-making ability, and less developed executive function. They often create posts without considering consequences or privacy concerns.5 And, because the interactions are not face-to-face, there are no apparent social or emotional cues, such as facial expression or tone of voice, that teens can access in order to understand those social interactions and their consequences.

Sadly, research in this area is alarming. Experiences of being bullied online by peers has been consistently found to be associated with higher rates of self-harm and suicidal behavior.2

Peer Influence

Peers often have a greater influence on teens than some adults do during this stage of their social development. Teens’ use of social media interactions occur at a much faster rate and sometimes at a higher intensity than typical face-to face interactions. This can become problematic because social media reaches a larger, broader universe, increasing peer influence, which can lead to social exclusion.2

Another aspect of peer influence is an increased amount of risky content and behavior posted on social media, including alcohol and drug use.2 Social media is designed to give access to a large amount of information, some with dangerous content. Links that promote unhealthy habits, like extreme weight loss and self-harm, are popping up on social media outlets. Because they are so susceptible to peer influence, this can lead to more serious health concerns and behaviors, including eating disorders and self-injurious behaviors, especially cutting.

Mental and Physical Wellbeing

Social media can interfere with mental and physical wellbeing, in part because of its addictive nature and its ability to trigger the reward system in the brain when used. The overuse of social media creates a need for teens to seek out instant gratification, which can lead to obsessive thinking and compulsive behaviors, both of which can be harmful to their mental and physical health

Social media can also disrupt or even change how teens are engaging in school and activities, hence altering their sense of community.6 In a study that focused on youth with social anxiety or depression, research findings indicated that they have a tendency to spend more time online and engage in less face-to-face contact. Instead of enhancing friendships and other social connections, these behaviors can hinder aspects of their social development and increase symptoms of anxiety and depression.6

Creating Good Social Media Guidelines for Teens

How and how much teens use social media could determine its impact. A small study in 2013 concluded that adolescents who used social media passively by looking at pictures online reported a decline in life satisfaction. However, individuals in the study who reported that they used it to post content or interact with others did not report decline.5 Based on the conclusion of this study, it may be helpful to construct some healthy guidelines so teens will have more positive experiences and an increased sense of belonging from social media use. These include the following:

Talking About Social Media

Weaving the topic of social media use and its content into everyday conversation is a simple way to understand the kinds of interactions that are happening. Discussing anything from favorite apps, videos, posts, who is talking to whom, what we/they like and dislike, and why we/they have those preferences can make teens feel more comfortable opening up about their social media use, their interactions, and the content they see. While teens may not disclose every detail, it’s a good idea to check in and make it a regular part of dinner conversation.

Another important discussion is one about risky and dangerous content and trends. One of the really disturbing aspects of social media is that there is a lack of control over the type of content being shared, including inappropriate material and dangerous trends. The rapid rate of exposure to this type of material demands that we all take preventive measures and have conversations regarding what to do and who to talk to if something concerning surfaces online before a problem or even a catastrophic event occurs.

Setting Boundaries and Limits

While social media can create positive connections, being able to set boundaries and limits regarding its use can help deter some of its negative effects on teens. For example, it may be helpful to establish specific times when social media is put away and turned off, like at mealtime, at family gatherings, or during evening hours. This also opens up time to pursue interests or hobbies that may be more beneficial to a teen’s development and growth.

Social media can negatively impact mood and attitude. Our emotional health is just as important as physical health, and social media can influence how we feel about ourselves and about others. If the use of social media is leading to worsening moods, more self-criticism, more persistent sadness or worries, or destructive behaviors, it is imperative to set limits and to monitor the situation closely and carefully.

Disconnecting Way Before Bedtime

Sleep is important to our wellbeing at every age, but it is especially important for adolescents because they generally require more sleep. Technology, especially artificial light, affects and interrupts sleep because it arouses the brain and disrupts melatonin production, the hormone that induces sleep.6 In a recent study, 40% of adolescents reported they use a mobile device within five minutes of going to sleep, and 36% reported waking up to check their device at night.2 So, it may be helpful to monitor what time of the day social media is being used and instituting some limits, especially at night.

Creating a Balance

It is unrealistic to expect teens—or anyone else—to stay off social media entirely. It has become a part of our culture and our daily lives. But it is important to consider which activities are being replaced by time spent on social media. Creating a balance between social media and other activities is probably a more realistic goal. Similar to eating a healthy diet, having a healthy social media life requires planning, thoughtfulness, and a balanced perspective. For example, if one knows they are going to want to spend some time on social media in the evening, it’s a good idea to engage in another healthy activity first, like getting homework done, exercising, visiting or calling a friend, reading a favorite book, listening to music, or starting a new project. Planning for and engaging in a variety of activities, such as social interactions with family and friends, practicing healthy habits, and adding social media to the mix is a sensible combination.

The Bottom Line

Ultimately, the key to successfully navigating the teenage years and social media use is to try to understand the technology and your child’s relationship with it. The solution does not have to be eliminating smartphones and social media, but instead creating a balance and exploring online alternatives that promote a sense of wellbeing and encourage positive behaviors.

References

  1. Office of the Surgeon General. Protecting Youth Mental Health: The US Surgeon’s General’s Advisory (US Department of Health and Human Services, 2021).
  2. Nesi, Jacqueline. “The Impact of Social Media on Youth Mental Health: Challenges and Opportunities.” North Carolina Medical Journal, vol 81, no. 2, 2020, pp. 116-121., http://doi: 10.18043/ncm.81.2.116.
  3. Merriam-Webster Dictionary. “Social Media”. Merriam-Webster Incorporated, 2023. Accessed 19 March, 2023. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/social%20media
  4. Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne & Orben, Amy. “How Social Media Affects Teens Mental Health: A missing Link.” Nature, vol 614, 16 February 2023, 410-412., https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-023-00402-9.
  5. Mayo Clinic. “Teens and Social Media use: what’s the impact?” Mayo Foundation for Education and Research, 2023. Accessed 8 March, 2023. https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/tween-and-teen-health/in-depth/teens-and-social-media-use/art-20474437.
  6. Heath Matters. “Is Social Media Threatening Teens’ Mental Health and Well-Being?” New York Presbyterian, 2023. Accessed 8 March, 2023. https://healthmatters.nyp.org/is-social-media-threatening-teens-mental-health-and-well-being/.

The views and opinions expressed here are solely those of the author and should not be attributed to Counslr, Inc., its partners, its employees, or any other mental health professionals Counslr employs. You should review this information and any questions regarding your specific circumstances with a medical professional. The content provided here is for informational and educational purposes only and should not be construed as counseling, therapy, or professional medical advice.

April 18, 2023
October 26, 2023

Reading Between the “Likes”: Teens and Social Media

by
Meredith Howard, LCAT, LMSW

Type your email to download

Thank you! Your submission has been received!
Oops! Something went wrong while submitting the form.

Headlines today that address teenagers and social media would have any reasonable parent pulling the laptop plug and destroying their children’s smartphones forever (or at least until the legal age of 18). Scroll online and you will find a plethora of scientific studies and news articles that attribute social media—and the smartphones that enable it—as the root cause of growing mental health issues such as anxiety and depression in children and teens today. The Financial Times ran this headline recently: “Smartphones and Social Media are Destroying Children’s Mental Health,” and a Washington Post column stated that “Social Media is Devastating Teens’ Mental Health.”

There’s no doubt about it: there is certainly a cause-and-effect relationship between social media, smartphones, and teens’ behavior, and there are other opinions that question the “catastrophic” evidence presented to date. In addition to the well-known negative effects, there are also wonderful positive benefits of social media and smartphones for people of all ages.

In this piece, Meredith Howard, a creative arts therapist, teen expert, and online mental health counselor for Counslr explores social media, teenagers, and how to navigate the daunting waters of parenting without drowning in our online world today.

The Relationship Between Teens and Social Media

We all want and need to feel a sense of belonging. This is especially true during the adolescent years, when teens are forming their self-identity, developing close peer relationships and establishing greater independence. For teens, social media plays a major role in their ability to make connections and broaden their social networks.

This leads to the question, “How can teens create a positive social support system, grow, and develop in the ever-changing, instantaneous environment of social media?”

As with all relationships, it’s complicated. The complexity of the relationship between social media and teens is what makes it difficult to create clear expectations and guidelines. In 2021, the US Surgeon General called for social media companies to prioritize adolescent health and wellbeing at “all stages of product development.” But scientific evidence on the impact of social media on adolescent mental health is inconsistent,1 suggesting that there are both positive and negative aspects of social media when it comes to teens, their mental health, and their developmental growth. Recent national statistics suggest that 95% of adolescents have access to a smartphone and 88% have access to a desktop or laptop at home. In 2018, 45% of adolescents reported that they were online “almost constantly,” up from 24% only three years prior.2 Clearly there is a rapid increase in both the use of and accessibility of social media, starting in adolescence.

Teens and Their Social World: The Developmental and Emotional Impact of Social Media on Teens

Although 90% of brain growth takes place before kindergarten, adolescence is the second largest period of brain growth, so it is important to understand what social media is and the role it can play during those critical years. But what exactly is social media? The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines it as forms of electronic communication through which users create online communities to share information, ideas, personal messages, and other content.3

During adolescence, social interactions, peer relationships, and forming self-identity are at the forefront of development. Social interactions, especially with peers, play a major role in how adolescents begin to form their identity. Interacting with their peers helps them focus on this developmental task—on how they see themselves and fit what their peers think of them.4

Since teens experience this developmental period of increased socialization because of the rapid development of their socio-affective part of their brain, they are easily drawn to social media as a way to get immediate social rewards and peer evaluation.2 It provides an easily accessible and vast social network, producing instantaneous feedback from peers. Teens have a heightened sense of awareness and sensitivity to peer interactions during this stage, which dramatically affects their moods when they are rejected or excluded.4 If negative interactions happen online, especially through social media platforms, it can make a bad situation feel worse.

Developing healthy, positive social interactions in adolescence depends on interpreting social cues, such as facial expressions, tone of voice, and body language in addition to actual words. But the social media environment can be asynchronous and does not always provide social cues for teens, making it more difficult to read and understand the intent of a comment or picture. This way of experiencing social interactions can also impact the way the brain grows and develops.4 Although social media users try to add emojis to express intent and emotion, they do not take the place of actual, in-person social messaging.

The Upside: How Social Media Connects Us

Social Connections

Social media has created a vast social network, one that gives us the opportunity to make social connections far beyond our geographic location. Teens are no exception when it comes to wanting to expand their social world. In a recent study, 81% of teens reported that social media allows them to feel more connected, and 69% reported it to be at least somewhat important for having meaningful conversations with close friends. In addition, teens reported that connecting with friends and family is the primary positive part of social media.2

Giving and Receiving Support

Social media also has the unique capacity to connect people who have similar interests and support those who are in need, regardless of where they live. Being able to connect with individuals who share similar struggles can be empowering and make individuals feel like they are not alone. Giving and receiving support can have a very positive effect on mental health and emotional wellbeing, especially for those who are isolated, geographically or in other ways.2

Self-Expression and Identity Formation

Despite all the criticism we hear and read, social media can contribute to an adolescent’s sense of wellbeing by advancing their self-expression and identity formation.5 It provides a channel through which teens can connect with communities of similar peers or social groups with similar interests and beliefs.6 In addition, teens have a means for self-expression and can explore various forms of entertainment by finding listings of local events and activities, including art, history, music, dance, and cooking, to name a few. They may also find educational and cultural resources and interact with people of different backgrounds, cultures, and beliefs, breaking down geographic and other barriers.6

But Beware: The Negative Side of Social Media

The downsides and dangers of social media cannot be overlooked or ignored. Some major consequences are the inevitable social comparisons, exposure to online bullying, peer influence, and social exclusion. These experiences can have a major effect on a teens’ mental and physical wellbeing and developmental growth during these formative adolescent years, with long-lasting effects.

Social Comparison

A large part of forming one’s identity as a teen is looking to peers and social circles for approval. Since teens use social media for many of these interactions, it is natural to look to social media as a point of comparison and a way to get that approval. By its very nature, social media is designed to get instant and sometimes negative feedback from peers. The number of “likes,” followers, and friends is often equated with social acceptance and self-worth. Measuring and rating social media content in this way can dramatically affect teens’ self-identity. Over the long term, this not only has the potential to impact self-esteem and self-worth but can also lead to symptoms of anxiety and depression. Furthermore, teens’ feeds can become flooded with imagery that can make their own lives seem much less exciting or interesting by that same type of comparison. Some studies have shown that a higher level of online social comparison is associated with depressive symptoms in youth. Not surprisingly, body-image concerns may increase.2

Cyberbullying

Cyberbullying is one of the most negative aspects of social media and can be a serious detriment to one’s wellbeing. This is especially true at a vulnerable stage of life, like adolescence, when peer relationships and the desire for more independence take centerstage. Not only does social media allow access to an audience much larger than a school or community, but there’s a lack of control over the content once that content is posted, further extending its audience “reach.” Teens are especially susceptible due to their impulsive nature, their naturally premature decision-making ability, and less developed executive function. They often create posts without considering consequences or privacy concerns.5 And, because the interactions are not face-to-face, there are no apparent social or emotional cues, such as facial expression or tone of voice, that teens can access in order to understand those social interactions and their consequences.

Sadly, research in this area is alarming. Experiences of being bullied online by peers has been consistently found to be associated with higher rates of self-harm and suicidal behavior.2

Peer Influence

Peers often have a greater influence on teens than some adults do during this stage of their social development. Teens’ use of social media interactions occur at a much faster rate and sometimes at a higher intensity than typical face-to face interactions. This can become problematic because social media reaches a larger, broader universe, increasing peer influence, which can lead to social exclusion.2

Another aspect of peer influence is an increased amount of risky content and behavior posted on social media, including alcohol and drug use.2 Social media is designed to give access to a large amount of information, some with dangerous content. Links that promote unhealthy habits, like extreme weight loss and self-harm, are popping up on social media outlets. Because they are so susceptible to peer influence, this can lead to more serious health concerns and behaviors, including eating disorders and self-injurious behaviors, especially cutting.

Mental and Physical Wellbeing

Social media can interfere with mental and physical wellbeing, in part because of its addictive nature and its ability to trigger the reward system in the brain when used. The overuse of social media creates a need for teens to seek out instant gratification, which can lead to obsessive thinking and compulsive behaviors, both of which can be harmful to their mental and physical health

Social media can also disrupt or even change how teens are engaging in school and activities, hence altering their sense of community.6 In a study that focused on youth with social anxiety or depression, research findings indicated that they have a tendency to spend more time online and engage in less face-to-face contact. Instead of enhancing friendships and other social connections, these behaviors can hinder aspects of their social development and increase symptoms of anxiety and depression.6

Creating Good Social Media Guidelines for Teens

How and how much teens use social media could determine its impact. A small study in 2013 concluded that adolescents who used social media passively by looking at pictures online reported a decline in life satisfaction. However, individuals in the study who reported that they used it to post content or interact with others did not report decline.5 Based on the conclusion of this study, it may be helpful to construct some healthy guidelines so teens will have more positive experiences and an increased sense of belonging from social media use. These include the following:

Talking About Social Media

Weaving the topic of social media use and its content into everyday conversation is a simple way to understand the kinds of interactions that are happening. Discussing anything from favorite apps, videos, posts, who is talking to whom, what we/they like and dislike, and why we/they have those preferences can make teens feel more comfortable opening up about their social media use, their interactions, and the content they see. While teens may not disclose every detail, it’s a good idea to check in and make it a regular part of dinner conversation.

Another important discussion is one about risky and dangerous content and trends. One of the really disturbing aspects of social media is that there is a lack of control over the type of content being shared, including inappropriate material and dangerous trends. The rapid rate of exposure to this type of material demands that we all take preventive measures and have conversations regarding what to do and who to talk to if something concerning surfaces online before a problem or even a catastrophic event occurs.

Setting Boundaries and Limits

While social media can create positive connections, being able to set boundaries and limits regarding its use can help deter some of its negative effects on teens. For example, it may be helpful to establish specific times when social media is put away and turned off, like at mealtime, at family gatherings, or during evening hours. This also opens up time to pursue interests or hobbies that may be more beneficial to a teen’s development and growth.

Social media can negatively impact mood and attitude. Our emotional health is just as important as physical health, and social media can influence how we feel about ourselves and about others. If the use of social media is leading to worsening moods, more self-criticism, more persistent sadness or worries, or destructive behaviors, it is imperative to set limits and to monitor the situation closely and carefully.

Disconnecting Way Before Bedtime

Sleep is important to our wellbeing at every age, but it is especially important for adolescents because they generally require more sleep. Technology, especially artificial light, affects and interrupts sleep because it arouses the brain and disrupts melatonin production, the hormone that induces sleep.6 In a recent study, 40% of adolescents reported they use a mobile device within five minutes of going to sleep, and 36% reported waking up to check their device at night.2 So, it may be helpful to monitor what time of the day social media is being used and instituting some limits, especially at night.

Creating a Balance

It is unrealistic to expect teens—or anyone else—to stay off social media entirely. It has become a part of our culture and our daily lives. But it is important to consider which activities are being replaced by time spent on social media. Creating a balance between social media and other activities is probably a more realistic goal. Similar to eating a healthy diet, having a healthy social media life requires planning, thoughtfulness, and a balanced perspective. For example, if one knows they are going to want to spend some time on social media in the evening, it’s a good idea to engage in another healthy activity first, like getting homework done, exercising, visiting or calling a friend, reading a favorite book, listening to music, or starting a new project. Planning for and engaging in a variety of activities, such as social interactions with family and friends, practicing healthy habits, and adding social media to the mix is a sensible combination.

The Bottom Line

Ultimately, the key to successfully navigating the teenage years and social media use is to try to understand the technology and your child’s relationship with it. The solution does not have to be eliminating smartphones and social media, but instead creating a balance and exploring online alternatives that promote a sense of wellbeing and encourage positive behaviors.

References

  1. Office of the Surgeon General. Protecting Youth Mental Health: The US Surgeon’s General’s Advisory (US Department of Health and Human Services, 2021).
  2. Nesi, Jacqueline. “The Impact of Social Media on Youth Mental Health: Challenges and Opportunities.” North Carolina Medical Journal, vol 81, no. 2, 2020, pp. 116-121., http://doi: 10.18043/ncm.81.2.116.
  3. Merriam-Webster Dictionary. “Social Media”. Merriam-Webster Incorporated, 2023. Accessed 19 March, 2023. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/social%20media
  4. Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne & Orben, Amy. “How Social Media Affects Teens Mental Health: A missing Link.” Nature, vol 614, 16 February 2023, 410-412., https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-023-00402-9.
  5. Mayo Clinic. “Teens and Social Media use: what’s the impact?” Mayo Foundation for Education and Research, 2023. Accessed 8 March, 2023. https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/tween-and-teen-health/in-depth/teens-and-social-media-use/art-20474437.
  6. Heath Matters. “Is Social Media Threatening Teens’ Mental Health and Well-Being?” New York Presbyterian, 2023. Accessed 8 March, 2023. https://healthmatters.nyp.org/is-social-media-threatening-teens-mental-health-and-well-being/.

The views and opinions expressed here are solely those of the author and should not be attributed to Counslr, Inc., its partners, its employees, or any other mental health professionals Counslr employs. You should review this information and any questions regarding your specific circumstances with a medical professional. The content provided here is for informational and educational purposes only and should not be construed as counseling, therapy, or professional medical advice.

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